Well, the NY Flat Stacies are done. They will stay in NY until 12/4. Each girl will complete 2 entries before sending their Stacie off to California for the holidays. Expected ship date is 12/5. Will share photos between now and then. Girls are very excited. So you know, we live in Eastchester NY which is about 30 min from NYC.
Cornwall has its own language! Cornish!
Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Brythonic Celtic language and a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom. Along with Welsh and Breton, it is directly descended from the ancient British language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. The language continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall until the late 18th century. Some children used the language to converse in, and families used it as a language of the home through the 19th century and possibly into the 20th. Some elderly speakers were known to be still living into the 20th century including one still alive in 1914. A process to revive the language was started in the early 20th century, continuing to this day. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornish_language
Flat is going to enrol in some classes to learn the language (just like he learned a bit of Arabic while he was in Saudi Arabia).
This is what Flat has learned about Redruth, so far: Redruth as we see it today is almost wholly a product of the last 250 years. It owed its growth to its good fortune in lying at the centre of what was in the 1700s one of the richest parts of land in the world. It was the deep mining of copper after the 1730s, which catapulted Redruth out of its status of quiet market town – in reality a village. Formerly overshadowed by its neighbours of Truro, Helston and Falmouth, it became one of the major urban centres in Cornwall.
The history of the town has, therefore, three parts. First, there was a long period during which it was a small market town of less than a thousand souls; then from around 1700 to the 1850s the town grew rapidly to house a population of over 8,000 as mining prospered; and finally, from the 1860s, the chronic problems of local industry heralded a period in which the town searched for a new role. Within this framework perhaps the best way to get a feel for the past of Redruth and its people is to walk around its streets. http://www.redruth-tc.gov.uk/Core/Redruth-Town-Council/Pages/History_4.aspx
Finally, the UK history of last name: Stanley
This interesting surname is one of the oldest and noblest of all English surnames, with the Stanley family who hold the earldom of Derby tracing their descent from a companion of Wilham the Conqueror, Adam de Aldithley. A branch of the family taking the name Stanley when Adam’s grandson married the heiress to the manor of Stanley in Staffordshire. The name itself is of Anglo-Saxon locational origin from any of the various places so called in Derbyshire, Durham and Gloucester, and is composed of the Olde English pre 7th Century “stan”, a stone, plus “leah”, a wood or clearing. The founder of the family’s fortune was Sir John Stanley (1350 – 1414), who married an heiress of West Derby, Lancashire, and became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and was granted sovereignty over the Isle of Man by Henry 1V. One Thomas Baron Stanley placed the Crown of England on the head of Henry Tudor (Henry V11) at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and was created Earl of Derby. Other famous namebearers include Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby (1508 – 1572), who signed a petition to Pope Clement V11 for Henry V111’s divorce, 1530; and Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815 – 1881) who was Dean of Westminster from 1864 – 1881. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Stanleya, which was dated 1130, in the “Pipe Rolls of Staffordshire”, during the reign of King Henry 1, known as “The Administrator”, 1100 – 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to “develop ” often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. Read more: http://www.surnamedb.com/Surname/Stanley#ixzz22AwYRqFH
The UKs first Cornish Pasty Festival. Three-day event celebrating the history and heritage of the geographically-protected food and its links to Cornish Mining and the World Heritage Site was held in Redruth from 21-23 September 2012. Flat met the Town Crier and a local pasty who was walking up and down Fore Street. http://www.visitredruth.co.uk/World-Heritage-Tourist-Information/UserFiles/Files/Cornish%20Pasty%20Festival%20Programme.pdf
He only had one pasty, a regular steak pasty, but there were many more on offer and many flavours, including:
Traditional Cornish Pasties
- Full English Breakfast Pasty
- Beef Madras Pasty
- Beef & Stilton Pasty
Flat didn’t have a chance to try making his own pasty, the pasty making room was very busy with lots of little fingers though. But he found this website and will make one at home: http://www.cornishpastyassociation.co.uk/pasties.html
This is what Flat learned at the Cornish Pasty Festival: “A wealth of historical evidence confirms the importance of the Cornish pasty as part of the county’s culinary heritage, with some of the first references appearing during the 13th Century, during the reign of Henry III. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that pasty was identified in around 1300. The pasty became commonplace in the 16th and 17th centuries and really attained its true Cornish identity during the last 200 years. By the 18th century it was firmly established as a Cornish food eaten by poorer working families who could only afford cheap ingredients such as potatoes, swede and onion. Meat was added later.
Evidence of the Cornish pasty as a traditional Cornish food is found in Worgan’s agricultural survey of Cornwall of 1808. In the 1860s records show that children employed in mines also took pasties with them as part of their crib or croust (local dialect for snack or lunch).
By the end of the 18th century it was the staple diet of working men across Cornwall. Miners and farm workers took this portable and easy to eat convenience food with them to work because it was so well suited to the purpose. Its size and shape made it easy to carry, its pastry case insulated the contents and was durable enough to survive, while its wholesome ingredients provided enough sustenance to see the workers through their long and arduous working days.
By the early 20th century the Cornish Pasty was produced on a large scale throughout the county as a basic food for farm workers and miners.” http://www.cornishpastyassociation.co.uk/history.html
He also learned that the Cornish Pasty is a protected food winning official recognition protection under the EU protected food names scheme! A genuine Cornish pasty will need to contain chunks of beef, potato, onion and swede (or turnip, as it’s called in Cornwall), all encased in the famous D-shaped crust. The award of Protected Geographic Indication status means the pasties can only be made in Cornwall, and only pasties meeting the registered specification will be able to carry the name ‘Cornish Pasty’ on their label. http://www.defra.gov.uk/news/2011/02/22/cornish-pasties-can%E2%80%99t-be-pirated-3/
Flat had only one thing to say after he finished eating his first Cornish pasty: “Proper job!”
singing the pasty song all the way home: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVEf1JfkKiY
On 1 March 2013, St Piran arrived (again) in Perranporth. Flat went to welcome him, along with the children form the local schools. He had a great time dancing the Piran Furry Dance. He was a bit disappointed that the photos weren’t very good, but hopes you get an idea of the dancing any way.
Flat learned that Piran is the most famous of all the saints said to have come to Cornwall from Ireland. The heathen Irish tied him to a mill-stone, rolled it over the edge of a cliff into a stormy sea, which immediately became calm, and the saint floated safely over the water to land upon the sandy beach of Perranzabuloe in Cornwall. He was joined at Perranzabuloe by many of his Christian converts and together they founded the Abbey of Lanpiran, with Piran as abbot. Saint Piran ‘rediscovered’ tin-smelting (tin had been smelted in Cornwall since before the Romans’ arrival, but the methods had since been lost) when his black hearthstone, which was evidently a slab of tin-bearing ore, had the tin smelt out of it and rise to the top in the form of a white cross (thus the image on the flag).
St Piran’s Day is popular in Cornwall and the term ‘Perrantide’ has been coined to describe the week prior to this day. Many Cornish-themed events occur in the Duchy and also in areas in which there is a large community descended from Cornish emigrants. The village of Perranporth (‘Porthpyran’ in Cornish) hosts the annual inter-Celtic festival of ‘Lowender Peran’, which is also named in honour of him. Flat was unable to attend the largest St Piran’s Day event – the march across the dunes to St Piran’s cross which thousands of people attending, generally dressed in black, white and gold, and carrying the Cornish Flag – maybe next year so he can take part in the play about the Life of St Piran, in Cornish. Daffodils are also carried and placed at the cross. Daffodils also feature in celebrations in Truro, most likely due to their ‘gold’ colour. Black, white and gold are colours associated with Cornwall due to St Piran’s Flag (black and white), and the Duchy Shield (gold coins on black).
How did Flat end his St Piran’s Day celebrations? With a Cornish Pasty of course!
Here are some photographs of Lucy White’s Flat Stanley visiting Sarasota, Florida from Whiteley, Hampshire in England… Thanks to Dale for letting us publish some photo’s on this blog…
Flat Stanley arrives at Auntie Jenni and Uncle Geoff’s in Florida… …and then heads off for a Bike Ride with Auntie Jenni…
Dylan plays with Flat Stanley and welcomes him to the house… Flat Stanley has a siesta with Tia…
… and a quick chat with Harvey (in his favorite fruit bowl!)… Catching up on some reading while chilling in the pool…
Watching the sunset while having a nice glass of lemonade 🙂 Too much chocolate mousse… stuffed! 😉
Tips on hunting gecko’s from Harvey…. …and also from Dylan…
Watching “Rango” (one of his favorite movies!) 🙂 Off to Nokomis Beach to climb some trees…
…and paddle in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico 🙂 …and here are some prehistoric sharks teeth he found on Nokomis Beach…
… and then off for a swim in the Gulf of Mexico in his all-in-one plastic swim suit 🙂 …and finally, some sea kayaking…
After an exhausting week, his last day was spent chilling by the pool 🙂
Flat Stanley with Bill Maher, Corey Booker and Eva Longoria. I took this pic for my friends son in Brewerton NY
Mark in L.A.
I enjoy hearing from participants and their families. Here’s the latest from Great Uncle Bob
These lucky flat guys just might be riding on a float in a parade during the New Orleans Mardi Gras celebration. They took a trip to a huge warehouse to purchase beads, stuffed animals, and other trinkets to throw to the crowds.
A movie scout from Hollywood South came to photograph our home. It may be used in a new feature film!
A French Flat Stanley visits the St. Louis Cathedral
Here is the Mongolian school the Grannies visited and donated the iPod touch as a gift from Flatter World Inc.
The Grannies made friends with a group of 9th graders at the 115 school in Ulan Baatar, Mongolia. We told them that we were excited to be in their country and that as “Flat Grannies” characters in the Flatter World with Flat Stanley, we hoped they would join us as members of the flatter world. We gave them an iPod with the Flat Stanley application and invited them to start sharing their adventures in Mongolia.
Mina, a member of the class has communicated with us and we look forward to many more encounters with the class.
When traveling through Mongolia it was important for the Grannies to see how the everyday Mongloians – who live outside the city, live. Their houses – round and made of felt and wood – are called Ger’s. Because many Mongols are nomads, they still move each season to parts of Mongolia that have better feed for their animals. It takes about two hours for a family to pack their Ger’s with all of their belongings and move them, sometimes by truck and other times by horse and cart!
The Grannies visited a family – the picture is us standing outside their home – and met the mom and her small son. We ate dried Mare’s milk curds and nuts!
Here we are, on a blustery day, at the Danish Windmill Museum in
Flat Stanley meets Danish Windmill
FS visits Danish WIndmill Museum
Just a note to say we really enjoyed Mongolia and especially meeting the kids in the ninth grade at school #115 in Ulan Baatar. We were fortunate to meet the English class of this wonderful school that is teaching Mongols to not only learn English but about their own important history – Genghis Khan!
The class we met with was very sharp and knew where Chicago was! We told them all about our TV show and many asked what channel we were on in Mongolia..sadly to say we told them not yet! We told them all about the story of Flat Stanley and that we were proud to be the first celebrity (real) Flat Stanley characters as part of the Flat Stanley online App family. We presented to the teacher and the head of the school the iPod Touch and they were really excited. We took pictures of the class and the English teacher and loved it all.
The next day our guide told us the students were so excited about our visit that they had “big plans” for their project and response to the Flatterworld!!!! We look forward to seeing just what they are coming up with and we re very happy to have delivered the iPod and to be a part of the entire Flat Stanley Project!
Regina and Pat, the Grannies on Safari
Flat Stanley is my reading buddy here in California. We read at school, we read at home and after we have our Pasta and meatballs we read before I go to bed. Flat Stanley is a good reader. Our favourite book is Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
You may recall when the Grannies on Safari announced their partnership with Flatter World on August 19 in Chicago. It was a fun event with flat costumes.
Flatter World launched the new Flat Stanley app for the iPhone and the Grannies announced their latest trip to Siberia. Things have changed since the middle of August – the Grannies are in Siberia! And they took our Flat Grannies with them.
So who would have thought there are no WIFI-friendly Starbucks along the ancient Trans-Siberian Railway route. The Grannies on Safari are doing their best to keep us updated on their progress as the travel on the Tans-Siberian Railway.
September 12, 2011
The statue is Musa Cälil the poet in Kazan.
The Grannies are walking in the Kazan Train Station.
The Grannies are aboard the train planning their trip.
The Flat Grannies are on the border between Europe and Asia in Yekaterinburg. They are on the border marker.
Aboard the train talking to the chef. The Flat Grannies are seriously looking at the menu!
Flat Stanley in Mandurah
Flat Stanley’s home for 10 weeks
Flat Stanley with Anne at Kalbarri
Flat Stanley with Cocky at the Parrot Sanctuary Kalbarri
Flat Stanley at the Parrot Sanctuary
F S at Eagle Bluff Kalbarri
F S and the Oceans Door Kalbarri
Tea Time for a Kangaroo
F S and Anne at Natures Window Kalbarri National Park
F S and Anne at Small termite Mound
F S on a Cruise on the Murchison River Kalbarri
F S and the One Mile Jetty Carnarvon
F S at the Blowholes 60km North of Carnarvon
F S at Bimbaks Plantation Carnarvon with S & H
F S and Bananas Carnarvon
F S Learns how to Cultivate Bananas Carnarvon
F S at the Lighthouse Exmouth
F S and a Seriously Big Road Train at Exmouth
F S and Sturt Desert Peas at Exmouth
F S and A Turtle at The Visitor Center Cape Range National Park Exmouth
F S Fancies Hang Gliding at Exmouth
F S Stays in the car When we saw this Kimodo Dragon at Exmouth
F S at Turquoise Bay Exmouth
F S at Cape Range Visitor Center with Sea Eagles
Rock Wallaby at Yardie Creek Exmouth
F S with Huge Dumper Truck Point Samson
Aboriginal Art at Roebourne old Gaol
Hermit Crab at Point Cooke Port Hedland
F S Does email to The Kids at the Grove Primary School
Stairway to the Moon at Point Samson
F S ready to Roll at Port Hedland
Unusual Sculpture Grandma & Grandad at Port Hedland
F S at The Reputed Hottest town in Australia (it was 37.5 when we left)
F S at Marble Bar
F S at The Salt Stockpile Port Hedland
Galah’s having a shower at Tom Price
F S at Tom Price Iron Ore Mine
F S at Karijini National Park
F S admires the Coral at Coral Bay
F S and The Captain at Coral Bay
F S says one spoonful of sugar please!
F S & Dolphins at Monkey Mia Shark Bay
F S & Percy the Pelican At Monkey Mia Shark Bay
F S cruise off Monkey Mia Shark Bay
Dudongs at Monkey Mia Shark Bay
F S @ Shell Beach Hamelin Pool, Billions of tiny Cockle shells
F S says Hello to the Stromatolites at Hamelin Pool
Wild Flowers at hamelin Pool
Hi my name is Chris, my Daughter works as a Teaching Assistant at The Grove Primary School in Consett, Co. Durham, England. I was persuaded to take Flat Stanley with us when we visited Western Australia in May 2011.
As well as about 250 photo’s I sent emails to the kids each week these really came from Flat Stanley, about his travels and adventures, while in Australia we spent 10 weeks traveling around in a caravan, to in order:- Mandurah, Kalbarri, Carnarvon, Exmouth, Point Samson, Port Headland, Tom Price, Coral Bay, Denham (Shark Bay) and back to Mandurah.
Kind regards from one of Flat Stanley’s Friends
By looking for ideas for our Summer Reading Program, the Flat Stanley Project fit in perfectly with our theme of “One World Many Stories.” On June 11, 2011, we had a kickoff Ice Cream Social for our Summer Reading Program. We had a section at the kickoff to hand out Flat Stanley packets and explain the project to everyone interested. During this kickoff, we passed out 225 packets.
Over the summer, we heard from many people about how interested they were in this project, or how they had done this at school in the past. Slowly, Flat Stanleys made their way back to the library. As they returned, we put the pictures, journal, and Flat Stanley up on the bulletin board. We also used a string to show each Flat Stanley’s journey on a map.
The day of the Flat Stanley party came on August 17, 2011 and we had 31 people attend, a 14% return from the kickoff party in June. I think we would have had more Flat Stanleys return if we had the project run longer than a few months. We had each participant do a show and tell to talk about where each Flat Stanley travelled. Flat Stanley visited Thailand, Afghanistan, Hershey PA, Columbus OH, and Orlando FL to name a few. We had awards, a trophy, to hand out for the Farthest Travelled Flat Stanley and one voted as the Best Destination by the participants. Also, we had a former local actor come and do a dramatization of the Flat Stanley picture book.
Overall, the project was so much fun and a fresh spin on pen pals. We learned about a number of different places around the world and saw some amazing pictures too. It is pretty cool to see the creativity of the people who received a Flat Stanley too!
Where in the UK is Cornwall?
The Great Flat Lode
Great Flat Lode Trail
(for more photos from this trip: http://theadventuresofmenu.shutterfly.com/ )
On a recent holiday to Cornwall in England we decided to geocache around the Great Flat Lode. I had grown up in the area, but had never explored the mines as a child – this was my chance.
There is a geocache trail around the Great Flat Lode and was a great chance to not only walk along the trail and find geocaches but to learn more about mining in Cornwall. I had learned about mining in school but Flat Stanley gave me another chance to learn what I had forgotten!
And yes, we did find all of the geocaches – thanks to some very appreciated help from the cache owner. The cache trail was a multi/puzzle cache with part of the information for the next cache in the previouse one – so we had to make sure we found them in the right order. This was a problem at one cache site because the box, and therefore the clue, was missing! We emailed the owner and he quickly re-placed it so that we could complete the trail in our 2 weeks’ holiday.
Please come with us on our trail of discovery…
The Great Flat Lode is an enormous ore bearing body tilted at an angle of about 10 degrees to the horizontal situated to the south of Carn Brea. Normally lodes are found perpendicular to the ground surface or at best at angles of about 60 degrees. The Great Flat lode got its name as in relative terms it lay a lot flatter in the ground. This, meant that mines could be placed at the optimum locations to extract the tin or copper ore from the ground without digging to excessive depths. The Great Flat Lode Trail encompasses all the major mines of the Camborne-Redruth area running in a 7.5 mile multi-use circular trail around the granite hill of Carn Brea.
The mines of the Great Flat Lode helped to provide employment to Men (miners), women and children (Ore dressers) at a time when the rest of the Cornish Mining industry was in decline. As the copper ores became exhausted in about 1870, the mine owners explored deeper finding fine high quality tin concentrations underlying the copper. This gave the mines of the Great Flat Lode a new lease of life. After some of the companies amalgamated in the late 1890’s the mines continued producing until about 1918.
South Tincroft Mine – Carn Brea and Tincroft Mines now form part of the enlarged sett of South Crofty. They were separate concerns at one stage lying just to the north and northwest of the granite hill of Carn Brea overlooking the Camborne-Redruth area. Carn Brea sett was one of the largest setts in this part of Cornwall. The mine was situated on the lower slopes of the hill and was bounded to the east by Carn Brea Village and the sett of Wheal Union and Wheal Uny, Redruth. To the north lay the main Great Western Railway line from Penzance to Paddington and the setts of East Pool, Wheal Agar and Tehidy. To the west lay the hamlets of Tregajorran and Penhellick and the Tincroft, Illogan Mines and Crofty setts. Over the hill to the south the area was leased to the North Frances and South Carn Brea setts.
Tincroft was first mentioned in historical texts in the 1680s as ‘Penhellick Vean & Tyn Croft’. In1832 Wheal Druid was amalgamated with Wheal Fanny, Tregajorran Mine and Barncoose Mine to become Carn Brea Mines. During the 1840-50’s production from the highly mineralised area running southeast from Camborne to Bissoe was at its peak. Cornwall produced almost 80% of the UK’s copper and about a quarter of world production! 1859 A ‘man engine’ was installed on Dunkin’s shaft, connected to a 26-inch rotative beam engine at South Tincroft Mine – Grid reference SW669406. 1850-1870 As copper production fell tin production increased with advances in mining technology allowing the tin to be worked at greater depths. 1891 The compressor house was constructed at South Tincroft housing a horizontal steam-driven compressor made by Harvey’s of Hayle which powered the rock drills underground. 1896 Tincroft and Carn Brea Mines amalgamated – records show that in this year the mine employed 466 workers undergound and 607 on the surface – quite a shock when you see the area today. 1921 South Tincroft mine closed. In their lifetime Carn Brea and Tincroft mines produced 470,000 tons of copper and 53,000 tons of tin. http://www.cornwallinfocus.co.uk/history/tncrofty.php
Great Flat Lode
South Tincroft Mine
South Tincroft Mine
South Tincroft Mine
Great Flat Lode
South Tincroft Mine
South Tincroft Mine
South Wheal Frances – Grid reference SW678393 – lies roughly in the middle of the Great Flat Lode with its area bounded to the northeast by the sett of Wheal Basset and to the southwest by Grenville United sett. Lady Frances Bassett, the mineral Lord, offered a lease on the land in 1834 and although there had been workings in this area since the early 1720’s, this new lease offered a chance to make a viable business. South Wheal Frances today is a group of buildings centered on Marriott’s shaft. Remaining buildings include the Boiler House, Compressor House, the Miner’s Dry, Smithy and winder house as well as the bases of the ore bins. http://www.cornwallinfocus.co.uk/history/swfrances.php
South Wheal Frances
South Wheal Frances
South Wheal Frances
South Wheal Frances
Stalactites at South Wheal Frances
South Wheal Frances
Grenville United Mines – Grid Ref. SW663386 – The mines of Wheal Grenville lie to the southeast of Camborne on the western extremity of the Great Flat Lode. On 29th December 1845 a lease was granted by the ‘mineral lord’ Baroness Grenville to work the area southwest of the existing Condurrow Sett. The new ‘Wheal Grenville Company’, run initially by Captain Lyle and Captain Thomas, took over the workings of previous ventures such as Polgine (1790-1835) and Newton Moor mines and worked for about six years before being purchased by ‘John Taylor and Sons’ – a company run by the local tramway entrepreneur. Further east, the mines of the South Wheal Frances sett were producing a great deal of copper ore and this helped to promote the general area to potential investors. Wheal Grenville did not however live up to its initial expectations and the new company was sold once more in 1855. The mine was bought for £2040 and the new company set about dewatering the mine and deepening the shafts. The eastern section of the land was hived off in 1859 to become East Wheal Grenville sett. The first real production taking place in 1860 with just under 250 tons of copper ore raised with about 80 tons of tinstone. A new shaft was sunk at North Shaft in 1864but production was sluggish. Employment at Wheal Grenville at this time was about 240 people, with about a third of these being females and boys working on the surface. Other shafts were deepened especially at New Shaft and at Boundary Shaft where the sett bordered East Grenville. http://www.cornwallinfocus.co.uk/history/grenville.php
King Edward Mine
King Edward Mine is at the eastern part of the South Condurrow Mine which was abandoned about 1890. It was re-opened in 1897, and developed as a fully operational/training mine. King Edward (as it was re-named in 1901) was completely re-equipped, both on surface and underground, with modern machinery reflecting what was then considered the best Cornish practice. It was intended that the tin produced would cover most of the teaching costs.
The mine regularly produced tin up until World War 1 when operations were suspended. By 1920 it was back in production. This was short-lived for in 1921 the adjacent deeper Grenville Mine stopped working. As the two mines were interconnected, the consequent flooding of Grenville also flooded the King Edward workings. Underground operations, on a much reduced scale, were transferred to a dry shallow section the Great Condurrow Mine to the north. The surface area of the mine was retained and used for teaching mining, ore dressing and surveying. The remainder of the lecturing continued to be carried out at the main campus in Camborne.
In 1974 the pilot plant and most of the lecturing in mining, ore dressing, management, and surveying moved to the main School of Mines Building. The mill complex was no longer needed and it became a store.
In 1987 a volunteer group was formed with the objective to conserve the site as an educational resource for the future and to operate it in a manner that benefits the local community. Using rescued machinery the mill has been restored to working condition much as it would have been in the early years of the last century. http://www.kingedwardmine.co.uk/history/
‘World Heritage’ status for this area was granted on 14th July 2006. This should help to provide the necessary funding to improve and interlink all the mineral tramway projects. The majority of the trail is off-road and suitable for walkers, horse riders and cyclists. There are even some parts accessible to wheelchair users.
How does an engine house work? http://www.cornish-mining.org.uk/story/enginehouse.htm
The principal function of an engine house was to provide the integral framework of the engine it contained and its basic design was essentially established by Newcomen for his Atmospheric Engine. The distinctive architecture of Cornish beam engine houses links their landscape context – both in the United Kingdom and overseas – with Cornwall and West Devon mining engineering. More beam engines were installed in Cornwall and West Devon than any other mining region of the world: a total of around 3,000 engine houses were built to house them.
The Engine House
For more information:
Where in the World in Saudi Arabia?
The Arabian Shield Geology
Ancient Landmass - Saudi Arabia
(for more photos of fossils and sandstone geology: http://theadventuresofmenu.shutterfly.com/ )
The geology in Saudi Arabia is quite unique. Many millions of years ago, the eastern half of the country was under water – what is now the Arabian Gulf (see picture above right). Today, you can go anywhere in the desert from Riyadh to the east coast and find fossils everywhere. The fossils range in size from tiny shark’s teeth to larger brain corals or entire coral reefs – all frozen in stone. So we thought that we’d take Flat Stanley with us to see if he was as lucky at finding fossils as we had been…. he was … and he learned a lot about sandstone, fossils and geology that day!
Fossil beds as rich and abundant in Saudi Arabia. There is no need to dig or even search very hard; artifacts of ancient animals litter the ground. Entire hillsides and cliffs there are composed of fossils. The Riyadh Escarpment is especially rich in pre-historic remains of sea life – this was the eastern edge of the ancient sea. There are thousands of acres of the desert floor covered with fossils; these ancient coral beds must have been an astounding site!
Due to the abundance of sandstone (fossilized ancient beaches) and limestone (ancient coral reefs) there are many examples of dahls (dals) to explore. In English these would be the equivalent of sink-holes or caves created by streams of water.
Along the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, you can find sedimentary limestone rocks deposited in layers by the rising and falling of ancient seas. On the western coast there is an ancient land mass, called the Arabian Shield, made up of igneous & metamorphic rocks. Occasionally you can find sedimentary rocks due to uplifting & erosion processes.
Sedimentary rock forms in water, where the weight of the water presses down on the layers of sand and clay to squash them together into a new rock. Sometimes animals and plants get stuck in between the layers, and then fossils in their shape get molded into the new stone. Because some kinds of grains, like sand, are bigger and heavier than other kinds, like clay, they sink faster when they fall into the lake or the ocean. That’s how you get different kinds of sedimentary rocks. Some kinds are mostly made near shore, and they have mostly sand in them, like sandstone. Other kinds are mostly made farther from shore, and they have mostly clay in them, like shale. The particles that get furthest from shore are the ones that make limestone. All of these rocks still form today, just the same way they formed billions of years ago. http://www.historyforkids.org/scienceforkids/geology/rocks/sedimentary/
This flow of water, slightly acidic from acid rain or from passing through something acidic, is what digs out the caves (sinkholes or dahls in Arabic). It essentially widens cracks in the rock. And the ceiling may also collapse, making a mound of limestone on the floor, and a concave dome above.
Old Widow Hag
Shark's Tooth Fossil
Flat Stanley Finds a Fossil
Heading down a wadi looking for fossils
Flat Stanley and Fossilized Trees
Miles of fossils, Jebel Baloum
Flat Stanley Discovering Geology
Stalactite, Sawh, Saudi Arabia
Sandstone and Limestone Cliffs, Sawh, Saudi Arabia
Sea of Sand
Stalactites and stalagmites occur in limestone caves. The stalactite is above, and hangs downward like an icicle; the stalagmite is below and sticks up. They grow in pairs, the slightly acidic water dissolves some of the limestone, carrying it downward. When the water evaporates, the limestone appears to have flowed downward. Some of the water does not evaporate until it has fallen through the air, and landed on the floor, the remaining limestone building the stalagmite. Sometimes the stalactite is missing, as they sometimes break off and fall; you will often see their pieces on the floor. Or human visitors may break them off, and take them away. Often, the stalactite and stalagmite will connect, and become a column.
Approaching Al Khatla Dahl
Al Khatla Dahl
Fossilized Sea Shell, Tuwaiq Escarpment
More Coral Fossils
Flat Stanley Finds More Sand Balls
Flat Stanley and Sand Balls
Crystals in the Sand
Flat Stanley Finds a Fossil
Moqui Marbles (sand balls) are sedimentary concretions. They form as sediments are laid down at the bottom of bodies of water. The moqui marbles have harder minerals than the normal sediment. The sediment layers then turn to sandstone. When the sandstone erodes away, the marbles are uncovered. Seeing these in the middle of the desert is evidence of ancient rivers and lakes.
Entering Sadus Dahl
Inside a Dahl (Sinkhole)
Flat Stanley's First Dahl (Sinkhole)
Fossilized Brain Coral
Al Khufaisat Dahl
Al Khufaisat Dahl
Pools Carved in Sandstone
Fantastic Sandstone Cliffs
Flat Stanley and Coral Fossils in Limestone
Lava tubes are created when lava flows as a river; the lava at the edges often solidifies into a hollow tube, or it may be open at the top. When the lava quits flowing, sometimes an empty tube is left, perhaps going on for miles.
Liquid rocks shoot up to the surface when volcanoes suddenly erupt. Then tons of liquid rock rockets out of the top of the volcano and lands on the surface. When the liquid rock cools down, it becomes igneous rock. There are a lot of different kinds of igneous rock, depending on what kind of molecules are involved, and how fast the liquid rock cooled down. Some of the better-known kinds of igneous rock that comes from volcanoes are pumice, lava, and obsidian. When lava cools, it often turns into basalt. Other igneous rocks formed slowly, deep in the earth. Some examples are quartz and granite. About a quarter of the rocks on earth are igneous rocks. http://www.historyforkids.org/scienceforkids/geology/rocks/igneous/index.htm
Flat Stanley’s Visit to the Lava Tubes and White Volcanoes: http://gallery.flatstanley.com/?p=4414
For more reading on Saudi geology:
Fossilized Coral (Tuwaiq Escarpment)
Fan Coral Fossil
Coral Fossil, Tuwaiq Escarpment
Tuwaiq Escarpment: A huge ancient coral reef and modern sandstone cliff
Hello, my name is Camila, I’m a 2 nd grade student at Ozona Elementary School in Palm Harbor Florida. I want to share the fun adventures and many places my Flat Stanley had and visited. I got letters from 5 countries.
Córdoba, Argentina, march 15th, 2011
Thank you for sending Flat Stanley to Argentina! We had a really good time together. He visited many places and lots of people!
First, here in Cordoba, Stanley, Aunt Sue and I visited a friend of ours, Melina. It was late summer so we were by the pool having mates. When people get together here in Argentina, we usually drink mates, a popular hot beverage.
We walked around the city as well. Cordoba is a very old city so we visited important historic landmarks such as the Cathedral you see on the picture.
We are gonna miss you Flat!
We had a great time here and I wanted him to stay with us longer, but I thought it would be nice for him to visit some other members of our huge family. So, he visited my sister-in-law in Caleta Olivia. It is in the South of Argentina, about 2700 kilometers from Cordoba city (1.6777 miles). It is a beautiful city on the San Jorge Gulf by the Atlantic Ocean in the Patagonia. Although, as I told you, it was late summer, it was really cold there already. That is the reason why Joaquín (the little baby) and Mauricio (his father) are wearing warm clothes. Marina is taking the pick so she is not on it. As you can see, they are on the beach. It is a particular one, since it has no sand, but millions and billions of little rocks.
After Caleta, Stan travelled all the way to visit aunt Bety and Granma Ana in Las Toscas, the city where your mom, aunt Bety and I are from. It was Fall already. He was there just in time to celebrate aunt Bety’s birthday party. It was a pity Susan and I coud not be there. They threw a big party; aunt Bety invited the whole family, they ate empanadas (meat pastri) and choripanes( sausage in a bun) and chocolate cake.
The day after, aunt Bety and your grandma went for a ride to show Stanley the city. They visited El Mirador, a historic place from which the founders of the city used to watch for natives attacks. They played around in the city square as well.
Also he went to San Justo in the state of Buenos Aires. He was there with Paula and her son Elias. Paula is our cousin (Granma’s niece).
Now is time for Flat to keep traveling, his next stop is Alexandria in Egypt!
We love you!
Tios Susana y Hernán
Alexandria, Egypt, March 20th, 2011
Thanks for sending your Flat Stanley to Egypt! We had so much fun with him walking around so many historic places. I’m Carolina, from Misiones, Argentina. I am living here in Alexandria, Egypt with my family.
My two little reporters are Banseeh and Giuliana. They had a great time showing Flat Stanley cool places.
Flat, Banseeh, Giuliana and Carolina at Citadel of Qaitbay, situated at the entrance of the eastern harbour on the eastern point of the Pharos Island. It was erected on the exact site of the famous Lighthouse which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (323–283 BC) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II (283–246 BC).
Now Flat is going to Turkey! Have a safe trip Flat!!!
Love, Carolina, Banseeh and Giuliana.
Cappadocia, Turkey, april 15, 2011
Thanks for send Flat Stanley to my place, my name is Sandra and I live in Turkey, with my husband and two kids, Meli and Mert. We took Flat to visit Cappadoccia, The area is a famous and popular tourist destination, as it has many areas with unique geological, historic and cultural features.
The region is located southwest of the major city Kayseri, which has airline and railroad (railway) service to Ankara and Istanbul.
The Cappadocia region is largely underlain by sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams, and ignimbrite deposits erupted from ancient volcanoes approximately 9 to 3 million years ago.
Now Flat is going to Madrid, Spain! Have a safe trip Flat!
Sandra and Family.
Madrid, Spain , april 20th, 2011
I’m glad to have Flat Stanley with me! My name is Meli and I live in Madrid, Spain with my husband. We went with Flat to visit the city and many places such as The Royal Palace and The Royal Theater. We want to make Flat happy. Also he got dress up for the duty. Hope you enjoy it as we did!
Now…. last ….but not least! Flat is going to Largo, Florida, USA to your Aunt and Uncle’s house.
Hasta Luego!(see you later!) Meli.
Largo, Florida, may 6th, 2011
Thanks for sending your friend Flat Stanley!!!
We had a great time; playing, sharing and learning from all the places he has visited.
He had a great time with Bombon, Negrita and Onix!
Cami, we love you VERY MUCH!
Tios Diego & Carolyn.
Flat Stanley’s Trip Story
Flat Stanley’s name is Agnes.
Students of Group “Agnes Stanley” in class 11 Science 3 , SMAN 1 Karawang:
1. Faiz Deja Ramadhan
2. Anita Dewi Istiqomah
3. Angga Maulana
4. Entri Aprilia
5. Ita Puspitasari
6. Ghani Wicaksono
7. Syah Putra Saky Rianto
8. Yuda Ardiansyah
The Guest Star:
1. Mr. “Kind” from England.
2. Mr. “Howba” from Netherland.
3. The Oarsman with cano.
On Saturday, We went to Sunda Kelapa harbour , we went there by train we left there with different railway station, but the same train, each of us left from Cikampek railway station, Dawuan railway station , Klari railway station and Karawang railway station. We did it because we left from the railway station that nearest from each our house.
First Angga , Ghani ,and Faiz left from Cikampek railway station. Faiz has bought four tickets for them and Entri too however Entri sent a message to Faiz that Entri left from Dawuan railway station with Anita. And Anita and Entri have bought tickets too.
At the moment, Ita was waiting at Klari railway station and then Ita sent a message to Entri to asked where the compartment that They stayed. They were at Fourth Compartment then Entri asked Ita that has Ita bought a ticket ? Ita has’nt bought a ticket then Entri told Ita for don’t bought a ticket. So the ticket from Faiz could be used.
Ita found Anita, Entri and others in fourth compartment. Anita hasn’t taken a bath that day because Anita was hurry up. Finally We were in Karawang railway station, Yuda and Rian left from there and Agnes followed us too to went Sunda Kelapa Harbour. Agnes was a doll from our task of Flat Stanley. Then we sat together in fourth compartment. Rian said after the train arrived that he wanted to come back to home because he ran away from his house. Rian said to his mother that He wanted to run in that morning. At the train We always deceived Rian. In the Train We saw scene in train’s window talked together, told a joke and other. Some hours later we arrived in the last railway station that Jakarta Kota railway station.
In 8’ o clock We arrived in Jakarta Kota railway station. But, before we went to Sunda Kelapa Harbour, We wanted to the toilet. Rian, Entri, Yuda, Angga and Ghani waited infront of Toilet because just Anita, Ita and Faiz who want to pee. Did you know ? Anita is very-very long time in the toilet. Until we supposed that Anita took a bath there. But when she went out from the toilet. She claim, She didn’t took a bath there.
Because a long travel we felt very-very hungry so we decided to look for food seller. Many food seller there because we had the same taste. We decided to eat Soto Lamongan was sold in front of Jakarta Kota railway station. Did you Know ? We wanted to Sunda Kelapa Harbour, but We didn’t know how to went there, finally We had to ask to food seller there. Ang He gave information for us that if We went to Sunda Kelapa harbor, We must went by public transportation with number fifteen.
Before We could arrive in Sunda Kelapa harbour. We passed Kota Toea Jakarta. In this place many building which was built by Netherland Colonial when They colonized Indonesia. And Agnes took a picture. The picture contained her picture and an old building.
We and Agnes also took a picture in front of an old red building there. We also wanted to take a picture in that old red building but when We saw the tickets for come in. We decided that we didn’t want to enter that buildings because the price was very expensive.
We also took a picture in front of the white building. In the fact that the building was an old post office which used by people previously.
While we were walking in the street from Kota Toea to Sunda Kelapa harbour We also took a picture the situation of traffic and Our picture in the middle of street which closed because Saturday.
After that we arrived in a bus station. So we looked for Public Transportation with number fifteen and after we found it. We came in and went to Sunda Kelapa harbour speedly.
On the way, In public Transportation. We sat pleasantly and took a picture for a memory that Agnes the Stanley also could travel by Public Transportation or we usually said “Angkot”. We took a picture of us too much until made driver be confused when he saw it. Oh, Faiz just be able laughed when He saw the driver’s confused face when he looked us took a picture with camera in public transportation.
And then, here it was We and Stanley arrived in Sunda Kelapa harbour in Jakarta. The point of west Jakarta.
We felt very happy there because we could see an old ship was parking there. So, we could took picture of us with the old ship. There, Faiz and Anita took a picture with agnes and view of Sunda Kelapa by turns. Anita and Faiz were be very exist in their Photo album with Agnes the Stanley in Sunda Kelapa harbour. And they were never tired to stop to took pictures there. Finally a someone bargained to them for sailing in the sea with a cano. That someone was an oarsman who leased his cano to visitor in Sunda Kelapa harbour. We bargained to around the Sunda Kelapa by his cano with price Eighty Thousand Rupiahs. And he agreed with this price and we sailed with cano.
On cano , Our feeling mixed. We felt happy, afraid and brave to sailed with cano. Besides Anita always stood up and made the cano shaky and parts of us were scream loudly. And we thought Agnes was afraid too because It was the first time, She sailed with cano. It was funny and amazing.
On the way with cano, we saw a big ship. It was wonderful ship. So We asked to oarsman to stop the cano because we wanted to enter that ship. And He parked his cano beside that big ship.
In the big ship we saw many tools of sailing like a rudder and anchor. And we felt very happy in that ship until we didn’t want to back to cano. We had feel comfortable in that big ship. But we must bac to cano because afternoon would come. Before we went down from cano, Ita had know that the oarsman was from Ambon , Maluku, East Indonesia. But Ita forgot to asked his name. After we went down from cano we paid service of oarsman and his cano based our treaty, Eighty Thousand Rupiahs. And the oarsman seemed very happy when he got his money that day.
And then we continued our trip. We went to Intan Bridge by foot. It was so far but we felt happy when we had arrive there.
This bridge on that morning was used by photographer to took a picture of Mr. and Miss Jakarta City or we said “Abang, None Jakarta.” It was a pride we could took pictures there because Intan Bridge was one of icon and famous bridge in Jakarta city. After that we left Intan Bridge we passed Kota Toea before we went back to Jakarta Kota railway station to came home to Karawang by train again.
Did you know ? The distance between Jakarta Kota railway station – Kota Toea – Sunda Kelapa Harbour and Intan Bridge about 8 Kilometers. It was not too far but we thought that trip was very tired. Our sweat was very musch. Why did it happens ? We thought the weather of Jakarta was very hot so made our sweat went out and our tired caused by hot , not distance. Until Yuda found an ATM , we followed him enter the ATM to made our body became cool .
Anita was very tired and hot with her sweat and her sweater. Faiz could not think how much sweat of Anita when she felt very hot because the Jakarta’s Weather and he didn’t take a bath yet that morning. Faiz saw Anita still happy with her sweat.
In Kota Toea, we dropped in the Puppet’s Museum or “Museum Wayang” because we wanted to saw this museum. In that morning that museum didn’t open yet so we could enter it at the afternoon. We paid Eight Thousand Rupiahs to bought tickets to entered it. So the tickets for each one was One thousand Rupiahs.
Agnes took a picture with another puppets in Puppet’s Museum. It was very nice and funny. We felt happy when we saw her photo.
We met a tourist from England who name we forgot to ask him. We knew he was from England because He spoke English fluently. And We took a picture with him in Puppet’s Museum.
After met one tourist, we also met another tourist in Exit door of Puppet’s Museum. Entri was fed up with that tourist’s guide. He was angry when Entri requested to a tourist to took a picture. But different with his guide this tourist was very kind and spoke Indonesian a little. Finally, the tourist said “Howba” after we said “Thank You” . So, we didn’t know what his language and where he was from so we called him with name was “Mr. Howba”.
The trip was finished and we went back home by train again from Jakarta Kota railway station until each our station. On the way, when we went back home. We were very tired so we slept. We thought this trip would be expensive experience which we didn’t found with another friends, places, task, and time. We felt very happy although we were tired. We always would remember our trip story with Agnes the Stanley. Thanks for your reading.
Mrs. Dede Sumiati, M.Pd.
Agnes the Stanley
Anita Dewi Istiqomah
Faiz Deja Ramadhan
Syah Putra Saky Rianto
Oarsman Cano in Sunda Kelapa
Mr. ….. from England
Indonesian Railway Service Company (PJKA)
All of Person who support Writing this Story. Sorry, We can’t mention one by one.
All of Reader
I can’t wait to come to India. Are you excited that we will do our boys day out when I come to India. I’m also excited to go to Hong Kong.
All the way from Colorado to Oregon...
Nike WHQ, Beaverton, OR
Flat Stanley explored the Nike World Headquarters in Beaverton, Oregon. His first stop… checking out the shoe collections!
Check out Flat Stanley @ Nike (Ella)